physics II Syllabus

A Hunt for Reaching Horizon of Science



Crystallography: Crystal systems – Bravais lattices – Lattice planes and Miller Indices – Inter planar spacing – Bragg’s law – Experimental determination of lattice constant by powder diffraction method. Crystal defects: Classification of defects – Concentration of Schottky defects in metals and ionic crystals – Concentration of Frankel defects. Band Theory of Solids: Classical free electron theory (qualitative) – Energy band formation in solids – Kronig-Penney model (qualitative treatment) -Fermi energy and Fermi level in metals – Classification of solids into conductors, semiconductors and insulators. 



Magnetic Materials: Classification of magnetic materials: dia, para, ferro, antiferro and ferrimagnetic materials – Weiss molecular field theory of ferromagnetism – Magnetic domains – Hysteresis curve – Soft and hard magnetic materials – Properties and Applications of ferrites.

Superconductivity:Introduction – General properties of super conductors – Meissner effect – Type I and Type II superconductors – BCS theory (qualitative) – High Tc superconductors (in brief) – Applications of superconductors, Josephson’s Junction and SQUIDS. 



Semiconductors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors – Concept of a hole -Concept of Fermi level in semiconductor – Carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductors – P-N junction diode and its I-V characteristics Thermistor -Hall effect.

Dielectric Materials: Dielectrics – Types of dielectric polarizations -Electronic polarization, Ionic, Orientational and Space-charge polarizations -Expression for Electronic polarization – Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric polarizations – Determination of dielectric constant by capacitance Bridge method – Ferro electricity – Barium titanate – Applications of FerroelectrIcs.


Techniques for characterization of materials: Principles of X-ray fluorescence – Raman effect (Quantum approach) – Atomic force microscopy -Electron microscopy (SEM). Thin films: Distinction between bulk, thin films and nano materials – Thin film preparation techniques: Thermal evaporation methods, Electron beam evaporation – Applications of thin films – Solar cell.


Nanomaterials: Properties of materials at reduced size: Electrical, Optical, Mechanical and Magnetic properties – Surface to volume ratio at nano scale -Quantum confinement – Preparation of nanomaterials: bottom-up methods (sol gel and CVD), Top-down methods (ball milling) – Elementary Ideas of carbon nanotubes – Applications.

Suggested Reading: 

1) C. Kittel – Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley Eastern Ltd. 5″ Edition, 1976.
 2) S.L. Gupta and V. Kumar – Solid State Physics, K. Nath& Co., 8ffi Edition, 1992.
 3) A. Goswami – Thin Film Fundamentals, New Age International, 2007. 
4) A.K Bhandhopadhya – Nano Materials, New Age International, Iffi Edition, 2007. 
5) M.S. Avadhanulu and P.G. Kshirasagar – Engg. Physics, S.Chand& Co., 1st Edition, 1992. 
6) C.M. Srivastava and C. Srinivasan – Science of Engg. Materials, New Age International, 2002.
 7) D.K.Bhattacharya and PoonamTandon – Engg. Physics, Oxford Higher Education.