UNIT – I
Introduction: Database System Applications, Purpose of Database Systems, View of Data, Database Languages, Relational Databases, Database Design, Object–based and Semi-structured Databases, Data Storage and Querying, Transaction Management, Data Mining and Analysis, Database Architecture, Database Users and Administrators.
Database Design and the E-R Model: Overview of the Design Process, The Entity- Relationship Model, Constraints, Entity-Relationship Diagrams, Entity – Relationship Design Issues, Weak Entity Sets, Extended E-R Features, Database Design for Banking Enterprise, Reduction to Relational Schemas, Other Aspects of Database Design.
UNIT – II
Relational Model: Structure of Relational Databases, Fundamental Relational-Algebra Operations, Additional Relational – Algebra Operations, Extended Relational – Algebra Operations, Null Values, Modification of the Databases.
Structured Query Language: Data Definition, Basic Structure of SQL Queries, Set Operations, Aggregate Functions, Null Values, Nested Sub-queries, Complex Queries, Views, Modification of the Database, Joined Relations.
UNIT – III
Advanced SQL: SQL Data Types and Schemas, Integrity Constraints, Authorization, Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, Functions and Procedural Constructs, Recursive Queries, Advanced SQL Features. Relational Database Design: Features of Good Relational Design, Atomic Domains and First Normal Form, Functional-Dependency Theory, Decomposition using Functional Dependencies.
UNIT – IV
Indexing and Hashing: Basic Concepts, Ordered Indices, B+-tree Index Files, B-tree Index Files, Multiple-Key Access, Static Hashing, Dynamic Hashing, Comparison of Ordered Indexing and Hashing, Bitmap Indices.
Index Definition in SQL Transactions: Transaction Concepts, Transaction State, Implementation of Atomicity and Durability, Concurrent Executions, Serializability, Recoverability, Implementation of Isolation, Testing for Serializability.
UNIT – V
Concurrency Control: Lock-based Protocols, Timestamp-based Protocols, Validation-based Protocols, Multiple Granularity, Multi-version Schemes, Deadlock Handling, Insert and Delete Operations, Weak Levels of Consistency, Concurrency of Index Structures.
Recovery System: Failure Classification, Storage Structure, Recovery and Atomicity, Log-Based Recovery, Recovery with Concurrent Transactions, Buffer Management, Failure with Loss of Nonvolatile Storage, Advanced Recovery Techniques, Remote Backup Systems.