Data Representation: Data types, Complements, Fixed and Floating Point representations, and Binary codes.
Overview of Computer Function and Interconnections: Computer components, Interconnection structures, Bus interconnection, Bus structure, and Data transfer.
Register Transfer Micro operations: Register Transfer Language, Register Transfer, Bus and Memory Transfers, Arithmetic, Logic and Shift micro operations, Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit. Basic Computer Organization and Design: Instruction Codes, Computer Registers, Computer Instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction Cycle, Memory reference instruction, Input-Output and Interrupt.
Micro programmed Control: Control memory, Address Sequencing, Micro program example, Design of Control Unit.
Central Processing Unit: General Register Organization, Stack Organization, Instruction formats, Addressing modes, Data Transfer and Manipulation, and Program control.
Computer Arithmetic: Addition and Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, and Floating Point Arithmetic Operations.
Memory Organization: Memory Hierarchy, Main Memory, RAM and ROM, Auxiliary memory, Associative memory, Cache memory, Virtual memory, Memory Management hardware.
Input-Output Organization: Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous data transfer, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, Direct Memory Access (DMA), I/O Processor, Serial Communication.
Pipeline Processing: Arithmetic, Instruction and RISC Pipelines.
Assessing and Understanding Performance: CPU performance and its factors, Evaluating performance.