Environmental Studies: Definition, scope and importance, need for public awareness. Natural resources: Water resources; use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams:benefits and problems. Effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer- pesticide problems, water logging and salinity.
Ecosystems: Concept of an ecosystem, structure and function of an ecosystem, producers, consumers and decomposers, energy flow in ecosystem, food chains, ecological pyramids, aquatic ecosystem (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries).
Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Land Resources, land as a resource, land degradation, soil erosion and desertification.
Biodiversity: Genetic species and ecosystem diversity, bio-geographical classification of India. Value of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, endangered and endemic species of India, conservation of biodiversity.
Environmental Pollution: Causes, effects and control measures of air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, thermal pollution; solid and liquid waste management.
Environment Protection Act: Air, water, forest and wild life Acts, enforcement of environmental legislation.
Social Issues and the Environment: Water conservation, watershed management, and environmental ethics. Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion.
Environmental Disaster Management: Types of disasters, impact of disasters on environment, infrastructure, and development. Basic principles of disaster mitigation, disaster management, and methodology. Disaster management cycle, and disaster management in India.