Review of ISO OSI Reference Model and TCP/IP Architectures. Network Layer: Design issues, Services, Internal organization, Comparison of Virtual circuits and Datagram subnets. Routing Algorithms: The Optimality principle, Shortest path routing, Flooding, Flow based algorithms, Distance vector, Link state, Hierarchical algorithms, Broad cast and Multi cast routings.

Congestion control algorithms: General principles, Traffic shaping, Congestion control in virtual circuit subnets, Choke packets and Load shedding, Jitter control and Congestion control for multicasting, Quality of Service (QoS)


Inter networking: How networks differ, Concatenated virtual circuits, Connectionless internetworking, Tunneling, Internetwork routing, Fragmentation and Firewalls.

The Network Layer of the Internet: The IP protocol, IP addresses, Subnets, Internet control protocols, Gateway routing protocols, Multicasting, CIDR.



Transport Layer: Service primitives, Addressing, Establishing a connection, Releasing a connection, Flow control, Buffering, Multiplexing and Crash recovery.

Internet Transport Protocols (TCP and UDP): The TCP service model, The TCP protocol, The TCP Segment Header, TCP connection management, Transmission policy: Congestion control, Timer management and UDP, Performance issues.



Application Layer: Domain Name System: DNS name space, Resource records and Name services. SMTP and MIME, HTTP, SNMP, Telnet, ftp, Multimedia.


Socket programming : Socket address, Elementary socket system calls, Advanced socket system calls, Reserved ports, Socket options, Asynchronous I/O, Input/Output Multiplexing, Out-of-Band  data, Sockets and Signals, Internet Super Server, DNS.


Previous year question papers​

Youtube lectures

Unit 1 Playlist

Unit 2 Playlist

Unit 3 Playlist


Unit 4 Playlist

Unit 5 Playlist