Review of ISO OSI Reference Model and TCP/IP Architectures. Network Layer: Design issues, Services, Internal organization, Comparison of Virtual circuits and Datagram subnets. Routing Algorithms: The Optimality principle, Shortest path routing, Flooding, Flow based algorithms, Distance vector, Link state, Hierarchical algorithms, Broad cast and Multi cast routings.
Congestion control algorithms: General principles, Traffic shaping, Congestion control in virtual circuit subnets, Choke packets and Load shedding, Jitter control and Congestion control for multicasting, Quality of Service (QoS)
Inter networking: How networks differ, Concatenated virtual circuits, Connectionless internetworking, Tunneling, Internetwork routing, Fragmentation and Firewalls.
The Network Layer of the Internet: The IP protocol, IP addresses, Subnets, Internet control protocols, Gateway routing protocols, Multicasting, CIDR.
Transport Layer: Service primitives, Addressing, Establishing a connection, Releasing a connection, Flow control, Buffering, Multiplexing and Crash recovery.
Internet Transport Protocols (TCP and UDP): The TCP service model, The TCP protocol, The TCP Segment Header, TCP connection management, Transmission policy: Congestion control, Timer management and UDP, Performance issues.
Application Layer: Domain Name System: DNS name space, Resource records and Name services. SMTP and MIME, HTTP, SNMP, Telnet, ftp, Multimedia.
Socket programming : Socket address, Elementary socket system calls, Advanced socket system calls, Reserved ports, Socket options, Asynchronous I/O, Input/Output Multiplexing, Out-of-Band data, Sockets and Signals, Internet Super Server, DNS.